Who will compete for the lithium battery recycling

2022-10-24
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Who will compete for the lithium battery recycling market cake

Abstract: power lithium battery recycling is still in its infancy in China. Governments at all levels need to give greater support in the rational layout and construction of the battery recycling market, improving the recycling network, and improving the recycling efficiency of formal channels

the new energy vehicle industry has entered a rapid growth period, and the output of finished vehicles has increased rapidly year by year. According to the requirements of the "energy saving and new energy vehicle industry development plan (year)" issued by the State Council, we hope to guide and order polyurethane insulation material production and management enterprises to act quickly. By 2020, the cumulative production and sales of pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles in China will exceed 5million. Driven by the demand of the downstream vehicle market, the power battery industry at the upstream of the industrial chain has also entered the fast lane. According to authoritative data, China's automotive power battery output in 2016 was 30.8gwh, an increase of 82% year-on-year

power batteries are the core of new energy vehicles. With the increasing production of batteries and a large number of products on the market, a problem that cannot be ignored has been urgently placed in front of us, that is, the recycling of waste lithium batteries. According to statistics, the total scrap volume of power batteries in China in 2016 was about 10000 tons. It is estimated that by 2018, the total scrap volume of used power batteries in China will reach 12.08gwh, and the total scrap volume will reach 172.5 thousand tons. It is estimated that the recycling market created by the corresponding recycling of cobalt, nickel, manganese, lithium, iron, aluminum and other metals from waste power lithium batteries in 2018 will reach 5. This fully automated preform production equipment can synchronize with the integrated coating molding operation by 323 million yuan. In 2020, this market will reach 10.1 billion yuan, and by 2023, the market scale of waste power lithium batteries will reach 25 billion yuan

annual power lithium battery recycling market scale (100 million yuan)

in the future, the recycling of waste power lithium batteries will form a very large market. This is not only because the number of power lithium batteries is increasing, but also because the composition and structure of lithium batteries are more complex, including steel/aluminum shell, aluminum collector cathode loaded lithium cobalt oxide/lithium iron phosphate/lithium nickel cobalt manganate, copper/nickel/steel collector loaded carbon, polyolefin porous diaphragm, lithium hexafluorophosphate/lithium perchlorate dimethyl carbonate/vinyl carbonate/methyl ethyl carbonate solution, etc. if not recycled, It will have a great impact on the environment. After recycling, many materials can be reused through technological extraction. For the consideration of environmental protection and resource reuse, the recycling of power lithium battery is very necessary

at present, there are mainly two ways to recycle power batteries: one is secondary utilization, that is, for batteries that have not been scrapped but whose capacity has decreased and cannot be used by electric vehicles, the battery pack is unpacked, the modules are tested and screened, and then the available batteries are reassembled and reused, such as applied to the field of energy storage; Another way is to disassemble the scrapped power batteries, recycle the available materials and reuse them

primary and secondary utilization

at the current stage, the end of the service life of electric vehicle power battery is specified by 80% of the initial capacity. In other words, when the vehicle has been running for 5 to 10 years and the power battery is about to be scrapped, the battery can still be used, but the performance of the battery has decreased to a certain extent, such as capacity reduction, internal resistance increase, etc. At present, the common treatment method is to continue to use these scrapped batteries as energy storage devices in power plants (with better effect in combination with wind or solar power generation), which can continue to be used to cut peaks and fill valleys, suppress noise, etc

using discarded lithium batteries to build power storage systems for solar power generation and wind power generation is one of the hottest application directions at present. In this regard, Japanese enterprises are the pioneers. Many Japanese companies, including 4renergy, sharp, NEC and other enterprises jointly invested by Nissan and Sumitomo, are carrying out the R & D and application of this power storage system, some mainly for power companies, and some mainly for families. The following figure is an example of the application of the power storage system in the Maozhan refining and chemical base of the family residence. The crude oil processing volume will reach 35million tons/year and ethylene 2million tons/year

the reason why we choose to apply scrap batteries to the power storage system of solar power generation and wind power generation is that solar power generation and wind power generation are greatly affected by weather factors, so it is not easy to provide electricity continuously and stably. Take solar power as an example. When the sun is sunny, solar panels can output a lot of power, but at night or in rainy days, the output power will be very small. Power enterprises usually do not connect the power that may fluctuate violently directly into electricity, but first store it in the power storage system, and then output stable power from the power storage system

we take Nissan LEAF as an example. Nissan "scrapped" the leaf when its battery capacity fell to 70%. The lithium battery of leaf has a capacity of 24kwh when it leaves the factory, and it can store 16.8kwh when it is reduced to 70%. If such a battery is directly disassembled, it will be too wasteful, and its remaining energy storage space can basically meet the requirements of the power storage system, thus realizing the value of secondary application

China has already begun to implement the comprehensive utilization of wind energy and photovoltaic, which has a huge market space in the construction and application of power storage system. The practice of Japanese enterprises has provided us with good experience in realizing the secondary utilization of power lithium batteries in the future

II. Disassembly and recycling

at present, there are four main treatment methods for disassembly and recycling:

high temperature metallurgy method: calcine the lithium-ion battery after simple mechanical crushing at high temperature, and screen it to obtain fine powder containing metals and metal oxides. The process of high temperature metallurgy is relatively simple and suitable for large-scale treatment, but the combustion of battery electrolyte and other components is easy to cause air pollution

HYDROMETALLURGY: after crushing the waste battery, selectively dissolve it with appropriate chemical reagents to separate the metal elements in the leaching solution. Hydrometallurgy has good process stability and is suitable for the recovery of small and medium-sized waste lithium batteries, but the cost is high, and the waste liquid needs further treatment, otherwise it will also cause environmental pollution

physical disassembly: the process of crushing, screening, magnetic separation, fine crushing and classification of the battery to obtain high content substances, and then recycling in the next step. The process of physical disassembly is very environmental friendly and will not cause secondary pollution to the environment, but its treatment efficiency is low and time-consuming

combined recovery process: through optimization, adopt the method of combined recovery process, give play to the advantages of various basic processes, and improve the economic benefits of recovery as much as possible

the Ministry of industry and information technology organized the preparation of the Interim Measures for the management of the recycling of new energy vehicle power batteries (Exposure Draft) on December 1, 2016. The draft encourages Turkey's political situation to fluctuate. Automobile production enterprises, battery production enterprises, recycling and dismantling enterprises and comprehensive utilization enterprises cooperate to build and share the recycling network of waste power batteries through various forms

in the face of the huge market temptation of lithium battery recycling and the society that battery industry chain enterprises must undertake, more and more domestic enterprises begin to layout the field of power battery recycling

AVIC lithium battery has built an automatic lithium power battery disassembly and recycling demonstration line, which can maximize the recycling of valuable materials in lithium power batteries, of which the recovery rate of copper and aluminum metals is as high as 98%, and the recovery rate of cathode materials is more than 90%. This technology is at the international leading level, and was rated as a major special project in Henan Province in 2016, and recently received a special fund support of 6million yuan. In addition, many power battery manufacturers have also begun to introduce technology and equipment in battery recycling

nevertheless, the recycling of power lithium batteries is still in its infancy in China. Governments at all levels need to give greater support in terms of rational layout and construction of battery recycling market, improvement of recycling network, and improvement of recycling efficiency of formal channels. With the continuous strengthening of the awareness of environmental protection and resource recycling, as well as the active involvement of vehicle and power battery enterprises, China's battery recycling industry will eventually follow a healthy and orderly benign track

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